free list low carbohydrate fooCabbageTang L, Zirpoli GR, Jayaprakash V, et al. Cruciferous vegele intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers a casecontrol study. BMC Cancer , . .
Kushad MM, Brown AF, Kurilich AC, et al. Variation of glucosinolates in vegele crops of Brassica oleracea. J Agric Food Chem Apr;. . PMID.
Savoy cabbage refers to cabbage that has more crinkled or ruffly leaves. The leaves may also be less densely packed together. Savoy cabbage also typically has a more delicate ure than ordinary green or red varieties. However, there are light green, dark green, red, and purple varieties of savoy cabbage, just like there are similar s of nonsavoy varieties. Most of the savoy cabbage varieties commonly available in U.S. grocery stores, however, have leaves that are lighter green or greenyellow in . The subgroup name sabauda is often used to refer to the savoy subgroup as a whole.
Hu R, Khor TO, Shen G, Jeong WS, Hebbar V, Chen C, Xu C, Reddy B, Chada K, Kong AN. Cancer chemoprevention of intestinal polyposis in ApcMin/ mice by sulforaphane, a natural product derived from cruciferous vegele. Carcinogenesis. May ; [Epub ahead of print. . PMID.
Tang L, Zirpoli GR, Guru K, et al. Consumption of Raw Cruciferous Vegeles is Inversely Associated with Bladder Cancer Risk. Apr ;. .
Due to these close plant relationships, you may find the terms choy and cabbage overlapping irly extensively in common vegele names. For example, you may find bok choy being referred to as white cabbage or Chinese cabbage even though bok choy does not belong to theBrassica oleraceagenus species that serves as the home for broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and kohlrabi. As mentioned earlier in this Description section, theBrassicaceaemily of plants has some very closely related groups and this closeness is witnessed by the common naming of cabbage and choy plants.
Kurilich AC, Tsau GJ, Brown A, et al. Carotene, tocopherol, and ascorbate contents in subspecies of Brassica oleracea. J Agric Food Chem Apr;. . PMID.
Easy RecipesOurRecipe Assistantwill help you find the recipe that suits your personal needs. The majority of recipes we offer can be both prepared and cooked in minutes or less from start to finish; a whole meal can be prepared in minutes. A number of them can also be prepared ahead of time and enjoyed later.Worlds Healthiest
As you might imagine from the complicated set of descriptions above, it has been equally complicated for plant researchers to trace the exact history of cabbage and its development. Because of the linguistic overlap between choy and cabbage and because of the cultivation ofBrassicaceaplants in Europe, Asia, and Africa, there are some conflicting analyses of cabbage and its exact origins. Most histories, however, point to the presence of wild cabbage in Europe as the most direct, distant ancestor of the cabbages we currently purchase in the grocery store. However, if we lived in Europe during the first years of wild cabbage growth over , years ago, we would be unlikely to recognize any of those wild cabbage plants as cabbages. Thats because the original European forms of this plant were nonheadforming and much more closely resembled cruciferous vegeles like kale or collards.
Pagliaro B, Santozza C, Simonelli F, et al. Phytochemical Compounds and Protection from Cardiovascular Diseases A State of the Art. Biomed Res Int. ;.
Finally, several recent studies have point out that raw cabbage can offer greater amounts of certain nutrients that either cooked or fermented cabbage. In one study, the incorporation of fresh, uncooked, chopped red cabbage was recommended as an optimal way to derive nutritional benefits from this cruciferous vegele.
While green cabbage is the most commonly eaten variety of cabbage, we highly recommend trying red cabbage because of its added nutritional benefits and its robust hearty flavor. We dont think you will be disappointed. The rich red of red cabbage reflects its concentration of anthocyanin polyphenols, which bring along with them unique antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties.
Enjoy the mild flavor of bok choy by using our Healthy Saut method of cooking. OurMinute Healthy Sauted Bok Choyrecipe will give you great tasting bok choy in a matter of minutes!Red Cabbage
MartinezVillaluenga C, Penas E, Sidro B, et al. White cabbage fermentation improves ascorbigen content, antioxidant and nitric oxide production inhibitory activity in LPSinduced macrophages. LWT Food Science and Technology, Volume , Issue , April , s .
Tiwari U, Sheehy E, Rai D, Gaffney M, et al. Quantitative human exposure model to assess the level of glucosinolates upon thermal processing of cruciferous vegeles. LWT Food Science and Technology, Volume , Issue , September , s .
Glucosinolates in Cabbage and Their AntiCancer Thiocyanates
Even though the inside of cabbage is usually clean since the outer leaves protect it, you still may want to clean it. Wash whole cabbage head under running water or remove the thick fibrous outer leaves and cut the cabbage into pieces and then wash under running water.
Choose cabbage heads that are firm and dense with shiny, crisp, ful leaves free of cracks, bruises, and blemishes. Severe damage to the outer leaves is suggestive of worm damage or decay that may reside in the inner core as well.
Cabbage is an excellent source of vitamin K, vitamin C and vitamin B. It is also a very good source of manganese, dietary fiber, potassium, vitamin B, folate and copper. Additionally, cabbage is a good source of choline, phosphorus, vitamin B, magnesium, calcium, selenium, iron, pantothenic acid, protein and niacin.
Nugrahedi PY, Hantoro I, Verkerk R, et al. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegeles translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications. Int J Food Sci Nutr. ;.
For education only, consult a healthcare practitioner for any health problems.
If you need to store a partial head of cabbage, cover it tightly with plastic wrap and refrigerate. Since the vitamin C content of cabbage can more quickly degrade once it has been cut, you should use the remainder within a couple of days.
* Indolecarbinol IC is not an isothiocyanate. Its a benzopyrrole, and it is only formed when isothiocyanates made from glucobrassicin are further broken down into nonsulfur containing compounds.
It would also be wrong to move on from this issue of digestive support without mentioning the very good fiber support provided by cabbage. At nearly grams per cup and only calories, cabbage provides nearly gram of fiber for every calories! This fiber density of cabbage actually ranks it above some our WHFoods legumes, including our beans, lentils, and dried peas. This very low calorie cost of cabbage fiber makes it easy to add fiber to your diet without adding calories. And this added fiber can be very helpful in improving digestion of food.Cardiovascular Support from Cabbage
Order this Incredible nd Edition at the same low price of . and also get FREE gifts valued at ..Read more
Silberstein JL, Parsons JK. Evidencebased principles of bladder cancer and diet. Urology. Feb;. .
To Healthy Saut cabbage, heat TBS of vegele broth, chicken broth, or water in a stainless steel skillet. Once bubbles begin to form add shredded cabbage, cover, and Healthy Saut for minutes. For great Mediterranean flavor, transfer to a bowl and toss with Mediterranean Dressing. See ourMinute Healthy Sauted Red Cabbagerecipe for details on how to prepare this dish. Ginger is a great addition to your Healthy Sauted cabbage; you can also add rice vinegar and sesame seeds.How to EnjoyA Few Quick Serving IdeasBraise red cabbage with a chopped apple and red wine. This is a childfriendly dish since the alcohol but not the flavor or the flavonoids will evaporate.Combine shredded red and green cabbage with fresh lemon juice, olive oil, and seasonings such as turmeric, cumin, coriander, and black pepper to make coleslaw with an Indian twist.
The word brassica translates in Latin as cabbage. However, this connection between cabbage and brassica vegeles can sometimes be confusing.
The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor, Version .., ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the , food items in the master daase and nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation to represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the daase.
Zhao H, Lin J, Grossman HB, Hernandez LM, Dinney CP, Wu X. Dietary isothiocyanates, GSTM, GSTT, NAT polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer. May ;. . PMID.
Recent studies on cabbage intakeespecially studies on intake of red cabbagehave looked carefully at the potential for cardiovascular support from this vegele. The results have been encouraging. Blood levels of betacarotene, lutein, and total blood antioxidant capacity have been found to increase along with increasing intake of red cabbage intake. At the same time, total cholesterol, total LDL cholesterol, and total oxidized LDL have been found to decrease. Reductions in oxidized LDL are a particularly noteworthy finding since oxidized LDL is a known risk ctor for development of atherosclerosis. One of the ways in which cabbage intake can lower your total and LDL cholesterol is through the process of binding with bile acids. Your liver uses cholesterol as a basic building block to produce bile acids. Bile acids are specialized molecules that aid in the digestion and absorption of t, and when they are present in your digestive tract, fiberrelated nutrients in cabbage can bind together with them for eventual excretion. Whenever this process takes place, your liver needs to replace the excreted bile acids by drawing upon your existing supply of cholesterol, and as a result, your cholesterol level drops down.Description
The George Mateljan Foundation is a notforprofit foundation with no commercial interests or
Find Out What Foods You Should Eat This WeekAlso find out about the recipe, nutrient and hot topic of the week on ourhome .
There should be only a few outer loose leaves attached to the stem. If not, it may be an indication of undesirable ure and taste. Avoid buying precut cabbage, either halved or shredded, since once cabbage is cut, it often begins to lose its valuable vitamin C content.
Singh BK, Sharma SR, and Singh B. Antioxidant enzymes in cabbage Variability and inheritance of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. Scientia Horticulturae, Volume , Issue , February , s .
Voorrips LE, Goldbohm RA, et al. Vegele and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. Am J Epidemiol. Dec ;. . PMID.
Hounsome N, Hounsome B, Tomos D, et al. Changes in antioxidant compounds in white cabbage during winter storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, Volume , Issue , May , s .
GIvery lowNutrientDRI/DVvitamin Kvitamin Cvitamin Bmanganesefiberpotassiumcoppervitamin Bfolatecholinephosphorusvitamin Bseleniummagnesiumironcalciumpantothenic acidproteinvitamin B
Vidrih R, Filip S, Hribar J. Content of higher tty acids in green vegeles. Czech Journal of Food Sciences , Special Issue SS. .
Kahlon TS, Chiu MC, Chapman MH. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage. Jun;. .
Yet anotherBrassicaceaemily vegele that you may hear being referred to as cabbage is Tuscan cabbage. At this point in time, the term Tuscan cabbage does not have a very reliable food counterpart in the grocery store. Cavolo nerowhich literally means black cabbage in Italianis most often a variety ofBrassica oleraceamost closely resembling kale. In ct, Tuscan kale is a more common name for the seeds of this plant than either Tuscan cabbage or black cabbage. But once again, you can see the amazing closeness in the food naming and food relationships in thisBrassicaceamily of plants.History
In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an indepth nutritional profile for Cabbage. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, tty acids, amino acids and more.
Ambrosone CB, Tang L. Cruciferous vegele intake and cancer prevention role of nutrigenetics. Cancer Prev Res Phila Pa. Apr;. .
Prawan A, Saw CL, Khor TO et al. AntiNFkappaB and antiinflammatory activities of synthetic isothiocyanates effect of chemical structures and cellular signaling. Chem Biol Interact. May ;. .
If youd like even more recipes and ways to prepare cabbage the NutrientRich Way, you may want to exploreThe Worlds Healthiest Foodsbook.Inidual ConcernsCabbage and Goitrogens
Stewart H, Hyman J, Buzby JC, et al. How much do fruits and vegeles cost? U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA Economic Research Service ERS, Economic Information Bulletin , February . Washington, D.C.
In , U.S. adult intake of cabbage averaged about seven pounds per year. This volume of intake placed cabbage in th place in as the most commonly consumed vegele. In terms of food production and the U.S. food supply chain, nearly half of all cabbage produced for the retail marketplace is ultimately processed into coleslaw. Production of sauerkraut accounts for another of all cabbage production, and most of the remaining cabbage is sold as produce in the form of head cabbage. The states of California, Florida, Georgia, New York, and Texas jointly produce about of the cabbage grown in the U.S., even though cabbage is widely grown across most of the country. About . billion pounds of cabbage are grown in the U.S. each year, with about million pounds being exported and at least that amount or greater being imported from other countries each year. Mexicofollowed by Canadaaccount for the majority of cabbage imports into the U.S.How to Select and Store
Fermentation of raw cabbage has also been shown in several recent studies to provide some health benefits that heatbased cooking methods cannot. For example, fermentation of cabbage has been shown to result in increased formation of ascorbigen, a welldocumented antioxidant formed by the interaction of vitamin C ascorbic acid with indolecarbinol IC. IC is the isothiocyanate that can be made from glucobrassicin, one of the glucosinolates present in cabbage. The creation of ascorbigen through cabbage fermentation has further been shown to improve oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in several animal studies.
Zielinska M, Lewandowska U, Podsedek A, et al. Orally available extract from Brassica oleracea var. capitata rubra attenuates experimental colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel diseases. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume , August , s .
Foodsis expandedWhats in our new book more sSmart MenuNutrientRich Cooking New RecipesNew Nutrient Articles and ProfilesNew Photos and Design
Steinbrecher A, Linseisen J. Dietary Intake of Inidual Glucosinolates in Participants of the EPICHeidelberg Cohort Study. Ann Nutr Me ;. .
Given the roles of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation as risk ctors for cancer, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory richness of cabbage would provide anticancer health benefits without the addition of cabbages glucosinolates. But glucosinolates are cabbages trump card with regard to anticancer benefits. The glucosinolates found in cabbage can be converted into isothiocyanate compounds that are cancer preventive for a variety of different cancers, including bladder cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer. Some of the key glucosinolates present in cabbage and their corresponding isothiocyanates are listed in the chart below.
Once you move past these basic cabbage s, however, some of the terms that you will hear to describe cabbage can become confusing. For example, you will sometimes hear the term Chinese cabbage being used to refer to cabbage s. However, cabbage s referred to as Chinese seldom belong to theBrassica oleraceagenus/species of plant, but rather, to theBrassica ranus/species.Brassica rapais the genus/species to which boy choy and turnips also belong.
This chart graphically details the DV that a serving of Cabbage provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Cabbage can be found in theFood Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the InDepth Nutritional Profile for Cabbage, featuring information over nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.Health BenefitsDescriptionHistoryHow to Select and StoreTips for Preparing and CookingHow to EnjoyInidual ConcernsNutritional ProfileReferencesHealth Benefits
While cardiovascular protection and decreased risk of diabetes have been areas of increased research interest with respect to cabbage intake, it is the area of cancer prevention that still offers the largest number of healthrelated studies for this cruciferous vegele. To date, more than studies have examined the role of this cruciferous vegele in cancer prevention and in some cases, cancer treatment. The uniqueness of cabbage in cancer prevention is due to the three different s of nutrient richness found in this widely enjoyed food. The three s are antioxidant richness, antiinflammatory richness, and richness in glucosinolates.AntioxidantRelated Health Benefits of Cabbage
The isothiocyanates ITCs made from cabbages glucosinolates act to protect us against cancer through a variety of different mechanisms. In some cases, they help regulate inflammation by altering the activity of messaging molecules within our bodys inflammatory system. In other cases, they improve our bodys detoxification system and leave our cells with a smaller toxic load. But the bottom line is decreased risk of cancer from consumption of cabbage and its glucosinolates. Weve seen one study, from Poland, showing impressive reduction of breast cancer risk in women consuming large amounts of cabbage. In this particular study, this reduction in risk was associated with consumption of at least cabbage servings per week, in comparison with the onceperweek serving consumed by women with higher breast cancer risk.
Rungapamestry V, Duncan AJ, Fuller Z et al. Effect of cooking brassica vegeles on the subsequent hydrolysis and meolic te of glucosinolates. Proc Nutr Soc. Feb;. .
Cabbage has a round shape and is composed of superimposed leaf layers. It is a member of the food mily traditionally known as cruciferous vegeles and is very closely related to kale, broccoli, collards and Brussels sprouts. All cruciferous vegeles provide integrated nourishment across a wide variety of nutritional categories and provide broad support across a wide variety of body systems as well. For more on cruciferous vegeles seeEating Healthy with Cruciferous VegelesFeeling Great with Cruciferous Vegeles
Bacchetti T, Tullii D, Masciangelo S, et al. Effect of black and red cabbage on plasma carotenoid levels, lipid profile and oxidized low density lipoprotein. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume , May , s .
Youll want to include cabbage as one of the cruciferous vegeles you eat on a regular basis if you want to receive the ntastic health benefits provided by the cruciferous vegele mily. At a minimum, we recommend / cup of cruciferous vegeles on a daily basis. This amount is equivalent to approximately cups per week. A more optimal intake amount would be / cups per day, or about cups per week. You can use ourVeggie Advisorfor help in figuring out your best cruciferous vegele options.
At WHFoods, we encourage the purchase of certified organically grown foods, and cabbage is no exception. Repeated research studies on organic foods as a group show that your likelihood of exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals can be greatly reduced through the purchased of certified organic foods, including cabbage. In many cases, you may be able to find a local organic grower who sells cabbage but has not applied for formal organic certification either through the U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA or through a state agency. Examples of states offering statecertified organic foods include California, New York, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington. However, if you are shopping in a large supermarket, your most reliable source of organically grown cabbage is very likely to be cabbage that s the USDA organic logo.
Put the whole head in a plastic bag in the crisper of your refrigerator. Red and green cabbage will keep if stored this way for about weeks while Savoy cabbage will keep for about week.
Because cabbages inner leaves are protected from the sunlight by the surrounding leaves, they are oftentimes lighter in . However, the outer of cabbage leaves is still the most common way of iding cabbage into s. For cabbage, the two basic s are green and red. Green cabbages can range from very dark to very light in . In ct, some of the lightered green cabbage varieties are actually referred to as white cabbages. The subgroup alba meaning white in Latin is often used to refer to the green cabbage subgroup as a whole. Red cabbage can also range widely in , with some appearing deep purple in . The subgroup rubra is often used to refer to the red cabbage subgroup as a whole. Youll also sometimes hear the darkest shades of purple cabbage being referred to as black cabbage.
Traditional methods of steaming or boiling make cabbage watery. Traditional methods of steaming or boiling make cabbage watery. To avoid this result and promote optimal flavor, we recommend Healthy Sauteing cabbage. Slice cabbage into /inch slices and let sit for minutes to enhance its healthpromoting benefits before cooking. For more details see the NutrientRich Way of Cooking Cabbage below.
advertising. Our mission is to help you eat and cook the healthiest way for optimal health.CabbageWhats New and Beneficial About CabbageDid you know that cabbage was one of two vegele s the other was root vegeles found to be a mainstay for prevention of diabetes in a recent study of over , adults in the country of Denmark? In this very largescale study, adults who closely followed the Healthy Nordik Food Index were found to have the lowest incidence of diabetes. Importantly, this key health benefit was linked to six food intake categories fish, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, root vegeles, and cabbage!Researchers have now identified nearly different flavonoids and different phenols in cabbage, all of which have demonstrated antioxidant activity. This impressive list of antioxidant phytonutrients in cabbage is one key reason why an increasing number of studies link cabbage intake to decreased risk of several cardiovascular diseases. You can read more about these inidual antioxidants in our Health Benefits section.In terms of price per edible cup, a report by the Economic Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA has shown cabbage to be the second most economical cooked vegele in terms of price per edible cup. Only potatoes came out slightly less expensive. The relatively low economic cost of cabbage in comparison with most other vegeles makes this cruciferous vegele a nutritional bargain, especially considering the excellent, very good, and good rankings that it achieves in our WHFoods rating system.There are literally hundreds of varieties of cabbage grown worldwide. But of special interest in recent research studies have been cabbage varieties that ll into the redpurple category. It is the anthocyanin antioxidants and in particular, a subcategory of anthocyanins called cyanidins that have been the focus of these research studies. Impressively, the anthocyanins in red cabbage are a major ctor in the ability of this cruciferous vegele to provide cardiovascular protection, including protection of red blood cells. Blood levels of betacarotene, lutein, and total blood antioxidant capacity have been found to improve along with red cabbage intake, while oxidized LDL has been found to decrease. This reduction in oxidized LDL is a good thing, since LDLan abbreviation which stands for lowdensity lipoproteinbecomes a risk ctor for blood vessel problems if excessively present in its oxidized form.Cabbage turns out to be an especially good source of sinigrin. Sinigrin is one of cabbages sulfurcontaining glucosinolates that has received special attention in cancer prevention research. The sinigrin in cabbage can be also converted into allylisothiocyanate, or AITC. This isothiocyanate compound has shown unique cancer preventive properties with respect to bladder cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer. Its also worth noting here that a second glucosinolate found in cabbageglucobrassicincan be converted into two cancerprotective compounds. These two compounds are indolecarbinol or IC, an isothiocyanate and diindolylmethane or DIM. DIM is an interesting sulfurcontaining compound that can be produced in the stomach from IC if the stomach juices are sufficiently acidic. Like AITC and IC, DIM has been shown to have cancerpreventive properties for the specific cancer s listed above.WHFoods Recommendations
Everything you want to know about healthy eating and cooking from our new book.
We recommend washing cabbage just prior to eating or cooking in order to help decrease the rate of deterioration. To cut cabbage into smaller pieces, first quarter it and remove the core. Cabbage can be cut into slices of varying thickness, grated by hand or shredded in a food processor.The NutrientRich Way of Cooking Cabbage
Miron A, Hancianu M, Aprotosoaie AC et al. [Contributions to chemical study of the raw polysaccharide isolated from the fresh pressed juice of white cabbage leaves]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. OctDec;. .
More than a dozen cabbage phenols have been shown to contribute to its antioxidant capacity. These phenols are now known to include benzoic acid, caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, dimethylbenzoic acid, gallic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, phenylacetic acid, rosmarinic acid, syringic acid, trimethylbenzoic acid, and vanillic acid.AntiInflammatory Benefits of Cabbage
Lacoppidan SA, Kyro C, Loft S, et al. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type DiabetesThe Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study. Nutrients. Oct ;.
Here is some on why we recommend refrigerating cabbage. Whenever food is stored, four basic ctors affect its nutrient comexposure to air, exposure to light, exposure to heat, and length of time in storage. Vitamin C, vitamin B, and carotenoids are good examples of nutrients highly susceptible to heat, and for this reason, their loss from food is very likely to be slowed down through refrigeration.Tips for Preparing and CookingTips for Preparing Cabbage
Most Chinese cabbage sold in U.S. groceries belongs to the groupBrassica rapasubspeciespekinensis. The term napa cabbage is sometimes used in a way that is synonymous with Chinese cabbage, and this usage makes sense to us because the most common plant group for napa cabbage is also groupBrassica rapasubspeciespekinensis. When the terms Chinese cabbage and napa cabbage are used in this synonymous way, you can treat these varieties of cabbage as being readily identifiable by their irly large, barrelshaped heads and their somewhat crinkly leaves. In the case of napa cabbage, it is also worth noting that the designation napa comes from the Japanese word nappa rather than the region of California known as the Napa Valley.
Cabbage and all of its fellow cruciferous vegeles all belong to the mily of plants called theBrassicaceae. Despite the literal translation of braica as cabbage, however, this mily of plants is seldom referred to as the cabbage mily. Far more often, it is referred to as the mustard plant mily. Mustard, including mustard greens, belongs to this plant mily as well. When people talk about the brassica mily of plants, they are talking about the plant mily that includes both cabbage and mustard. Historically, this mily of plants was most commonly referred to as theCrucifereae. For all practical purposes, Crucifereae and Brassicaceae are interchangeable names for this plant mily. The nameCrucifereae, of course, is where the term cruciferous vegeles originates. All cruciferous vegeles are members of theBrassicaceae/Crucifereaemily.
Kusznierewicz, B, Bartoszek A., Wolska, L et al. Partial characterization of white cabbages Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba from different regions by glucosinolates, bioactive compounds, total antioxidant activities, and proteins. LWT Food Science and Technology , , . .
Higdon JV, Delage B, Williams DE, et al. Cruciferous Vegeles and Human Cancer Risk Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis. Pharmacol Res. March; . .
You may sometimes hear cabbage being described as a food that contains goitrogens, or as a food that is goitrogenic. For helpful information in this areaincluding our WHFoods Recommendationsplease see our articleWhat is meant by the term goitrogen and what is the connection between goitrogens, food, and health?.Nutritional Profile
In this con of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, and cancer prevention, it is worth noting that one of the IC the isothiocyanate made from glucobrassicin can be further converted in the stomach under healthy acidic conditions to diindolylmethane DIM, which has also been shown to be a valuable cancerpreventive compound.Digestive Tract Support of Cabbage
However, in some recent studies on cabbage cooking, different cooking methods have been found to produce differing results. For example, when minute boiling was compared to minute streaming, minute microwaving, and minute steaming, boiling came out better than either steaming or microwaving for preserving the anthocyanins in red cabbage. For retention of vitamin C in this same study, however, steaming came out best.
Dekker M, Dekkers E, Jasper A, et al. Predictive modelling of vegele firmness after thermal pretreatments and steaming. Innovative Food Science Emerging Technologies, Volume , October , s .
Duchnowicz P, Bors M, Podsadek A, et al. Effect of polyphenols extracts from Brassica vegeles on erythrocyte membranes in vitro study. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. Nov;.
Bhattacharya A, Tang L, Li Y, et al. Inhibition of bladder cancer development by allyl isothiocyanate. Carcinogenesis. Feb;. .
Longeslished in health research is the role of cabbage juice in helping heal stomach ulcers called peptic ulcers, but more recent studies on cabbage have looked at the overall health benefits of this food for the stomach and digestive tract as a whole. Presentday studies make it clear that cabbage contains a variety of nutrients of potential benefit to our stomach and intestinal linings. These nutrients include glucosinolates and the antiinflammatory isothiocyanates or ITCs made from them, antioxidant polyphenols, and the amino acidlike substance called glutamine. In the case of ITCs, digestive tract benefits include proper regulation of bacterial populations of Helicobacter pylori inside the stomach. These bacteria are normal stomach inhabitants, but their populations can become too large and they can latch onto the stomach lining in an undesirable way. The ITCs made from cabbages glucosinolates can lower the risk of these unwanted stomach events.
The Worlds Healthiest Foods website is a leading source of information and expertise on the Healthiest Way of Eating and Cooking. Its one of the most visited websites on the internet when it comes to Healthiest Foods and Healthiest Recipes and comes up on a Google search for these phrases.Over Quick
Slicing Cabbage very thin before cooking and letting it sit for minutes helps bring out their hidden flavors and makes them more enjoyable. You can start to smell the complex rich aroma after you cut it. This is similar to the reactions that occur that causes the pungent smell when onions and garlic are cut, although the smell is not quite as intense For more on how preparation methods may impact the benefit of cruciferous vegeles, seeour article on the subject.
Even more confusing is the very close relationship between several members of this plant mily. The genus/species combination ofBrassica oleraceaeis identical for all of the following cruciferous vegeles broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and kohlrabi. These six vegeles are simply different subspecies and varieties ofBrassica oleraceae.
From all of the cooking methods we tried when cooking cabbage, our vorite is Healthy Saut. We think that it provides the greatest flavor. Healthy Sautsimilar to Quick Boiling and Quick Steaming, our other recommended cooking methodsfollows three basic cooking guidelines that are generally associated in food science research with improved nutrient retention. These three guidelines are minimal necessary heat exposure; minimal necessary cooking duration; minimal necessary food suce contact with cooking liquid.
Without sufficient intake of antiinflammatory nutrients, regulation of our inflammatory system can become compromised, and we can experience the problem of chronic inflammation. Especially when combined together with oxidative stress, chronic inflammation is a risk ctor for development of cancer.
OurChinese Chicken Cabbage Saladrecipe is a great example of how to enjoy the delicate flavor of napa cabbage in your vorite salad. It is a milder tasting variety of cabbage that boasts the highest concentration of folate.
As described earlier in this food profile, cabbage is also a unique source of several s of phytonutrients. Its overall antioxidant activity is largely due to its unusual phenol and polyphenol content. With red cabbage, these polyphenols include antioxidant and antiinflammatory compounds called anthocyanins. Cabbage is also unique for it rich supply of glucosinolates. These phytonutrients can be converted by the body into isothiocyanates that have special detoxification and anticancer properties.Introduction to Food Rating System ChartIn order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source below the chart you will find a le that explains these qualifications. If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesnt contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. To view this foods indepth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good please use the link below the chart. To read this chart accurately, youll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving we used to calculate the foods nutrient composition. This serving will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value DV that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we eslished in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling.Read more information and details of our rating system.
Some WHFoods recipes that feature cabbageAsian Chicken SaladChinese Chicken Cabbage SaladSpicy Cabbage SoupPoached Fish with Napa CabbageSesame Braised Chicken CabbageSweet N Sour Cod with Cabbage and BroccoliVegetarian StirFryNapa Cabbage SaladMinute Healthy Sauted Red CabbageGingered Cabbage
The anthocyanins found in red cabbage are welldocumented antiinflammatory compounds and make red cabbage a standout antiinflammatory food for this reason. However, all s of cabbage contain significant amounts of polyphenols that provide antiinflammatory benefits. Anthocyanins are also compounds that ll into the general category of polyphenols known as flavonoids, and they are definitely not the only important flavonoids provided by cabbage. Included in the list of cabbage flavonoids are the following antiinflammatory compounds artemetin, betanidin, butein, equol, hydroxyflavone, kaempferol, luteolin, malvidin, naringenin, pelargonodin, purpurogalin, quercitol, and tetrahydrochalcone.Glucosinolates and Cancer Prevention from Cabbage
Drewnowski A. New metrics of affordable nutrition which vegeles provide most nutrients for least cost? J Acad Nutr Diet. Sep;.
Cabbage ranked in our WHFoods rating system as an excellent source of vitamin C and a very good source of manganese. But in terms of antioxidants in the newer, phytonutrient category, cabbage is impressive, even among cruciferous vegeles. Polyphenols rank at the top of the list for phytonutrient antioxidants in cabbage. In ct, one group of researchers has described polyphenols as the primary ctor in cabbages overall antioxidant capacity. Even white cabbage a very lightlyed form of green cabbage and the most commonly eaten variety of cabbage in the U.S. provides about milligrams of polyphenols in a halfcup serving. Red cabbage makes its own unique contribution in this area by providing about milligrams of the red pigment polyphenols called anthocyanins in each half cup. These anthocyanins qualify not only as antioxidant nutrients, but as antiinflammatory nutrients as well. The antioxidant richness of cabbage is partly responsible for its cancer prevention benefits. Without sufficient intake of antioxidants, our oxygen meolism can become compromised, and we can experience a meolic problem called oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress, in and of itself, can be a risk ctor for development of cancer.