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Theres a mailing list where you can share your experience with Owl and ask questions.Please be sure to specify an informative message subject whenever you post to the list that is, something better than question or problem. To subscribe, enter your email address below or send an empty message toowluserssubscribe at . You will be required to confirm your subscription by replying to the automated confirmation request that will be sent to you. You will be able to unsubscribe at any time and we will not use your email address for any other purpose or share it with a third party. However, if you post to the list, other subscribers and those viewing the archives may see your addresses as specified on your message.The list archive is availablelocallyand viaMARC.

Owl is a registered project withOpen HubandDistroWatch.

Download latest sle versionrelease notes,more mirrors are availableOwl .sle // for x bytes MB .iso.gz

The above s include alive system,installable packages, theinstallerprogram, as well asfull source code and the build environment everything!

Youre encouraged todownload Owlorpurchase a CD, try it out, and provide your feedback to us via the owlusers mailing list see below.

In addition to the owlusers and owldev lists you have the option to direct your comments regarding Owl to us privately viafeedback at vs.openwall. Potential security issues are to be reported tosecurity at vs.openwalland nonsecurity bugs tobugs at vs.openwall.

Powered by Openwall GNU/*/LinuxPowered by OpenVZ

Please note that these ISOs require DVD media once uncompressed, theyre slightly beyond the of a CD.

requiresPAE, supportsNX bitwhen presentDownload latest development snapshotrequirements are similar to those of Owl . aboveOwlcurrent // for x bytes MB .iso.gzOwlcurrent // for bit x i bytes MB .iso.gz

boole on Pentium Pro/// and Celeron except forsome olderPentium M and Celeron M found in some laptops; Xeon all kinds; Core, Core , and Core i/i/i/i; Atom; Athlon, Opteron; and many more / all newer x CPUs and virtual machines QEMU, etc.

A separate mailing list exists for Owl development discussions that is, if you want to discuss and contribute to the source code. Its archive is availablelocally.To subscribe, enter your email address below or send an empty message toowldevsubscribe at m.

Owl . release has been prepared on December , .It uses a RHEL .based Linux . / OpenVZ kernel and it has optionalOpenVZ containerbased virtualizationintegrated. Weve since updated to RHEL .based Linux/OpenVZ kernels in Owl .sle.

Openwall GNU/*/Linux or Owl for short is a small securityenhanced Linux distribution for

When you download the ISOs below, please also download iso.mtree and iso.mtree.sign files from the same directory,verify the signatureon the iso.mtree file using the iso.mtree.sign file and the PGP key that you obtain from this website, and verify the SHA digests of the ISOs using the iso.mtree file.

Commercial support for Owl is available, please check out ourservices.

Owllive CDs with remote SSH accessare also good forrecoveringorinstalling systemswhether with Owl or not. Another secondary use is foroperating systemsand/orcomputer security courses, which benefit from the structure of Owl and from our inclusion of the complete build environment.

You can read more about theconceptsbehind Owl including its features and our approach to security, thearchitectureswe support, the guide on using the Owlbuild environment, and theinstallation instructions.

boole on bit capable machines only including virtual ones such as QEMU, etc.Owl .sle // for bit x i bytes MB .iso.gz

Please check out ourpresentation slides on Owl.

of the Best Free Email Accountfree address lists for mailings for

of the Best Free Email Accountfree address lists for mailings forIts probably not a surprise that Gmail makes the top of my list for one of the best free email accounts. Gmail is Googles free email service that has a really nice and modern feel to it, and there are numerous shortcuts you can use to make it even easier to work with.

Another great thing about this email service is that you can truly customize a lot of what you see on the , as well as use keyboard shortcuts, filters, a vacation reply and add domains to the white list and/or black list.

Email accounts created at Yandex end withyandex.

Probably the nicest feature about this is that when the Tutanota user responds back to the user not using Tutanota, the messages are still contained within the temporary account. This means you can have back and forth communication with any other email service and they can keep the link open the whole time.

I like how intuitive Outlook is its as easy as rightclicking an email to find further options like moving/deleting messages and searching for every email from that one sender, for example.

Besides the extreme flexibility to choose a custom domain name for your email address, there really isnt much else to be excited about when it comes to creating a Mail email account.

If you send the message to a nonProtonMail user and dont define an expiration time, the message will still expire in days.

Some of the top choices includemail, email, usa, myself, post, dr, techie, engineer, cheerfulandwriteme.

Email rules are supported with Outlook, which means you can set new messages to automatically move to a specified folder, be categorized, flagged or even forwarded if certain conditions are met.

Outlook Outlook Mail is Microsofts free email service that, like Gmail, has a solid intece thats easy to work with.

Yandex is a Russian company that provides many tools in addition to free email accounts, such as an internet browser, GB ofcloud storage serviceand search engine.

The intece for Yandex Mail is very nice to work with. Its easy to read and provides a very layout while still keeping all the necessary tools intact.

When sending messages to nonTutanota users, you can choose to make them password protected or to keep them unencrypted. If a password is chosen, the recipient will get a custom link to open the message, where they must enter the password to read and reply.

You can add other email accounts to Yandex.Mail if you prefer to read all your mail here. This means you could make a Gmail and Yahoo Mail account, for example, and just read all of them at Yandex.Mail.

There are different themes you can apply to Gmails intece to customize how it appears, tons of advanced settings, and the ability to create labels and filters, import email in from other email accounts, use a chat client, and, among other features, install gadgets addons to extend Gmails functionality.

An email address at Gmail is set up in the formatHowever, messages can be sent toexampleas well, or evenexampleanything can be written in heregmail, and they will still arrive in your regular Gmail inbox.

Like Gmail, Outlook Mail is closely related to Outlook Calendar so that events can be shared between the two. Also, addins are supported in the email service, too, ones like PayPal, DocuSign, Trello, Boomerang, GIPHY and many others.

Its easy to create new notes, tasks, calendar events, contacts and bookmarks in Zoho Mail since its closely connected with some of those other Zoho apps.

Tutanota Latin for tuta nota, meaning secure message is similar to the ProtonMail service above in that it automatically encrypts all your emails. However, you can disable endtoend encryption if youd like.

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Several other features are also not available in the free edition, like automatic replies, sub accounts, and more.

Yahoo Mail lets you import contacts from a file on your computer as well as from your Facebook, Google or Outlook account. This makes it easy to transfer contacts from a different email provider to Yahoo Mail.

Like most of the other email providers on this list, Yandex.Mail supports email filters, contact importing and exporting, tasks and hotkeys.

There are also dozens of themes you can choose from to instantly transform the entire . Some of the themes can even be interacted with, such as theWeathertheme, which shows local weather below your mail.

All the standard compose tools are included in this email service. You can even add s from Zoho Docs, Google Drive, OneDrive, Box, and other services, as well as include les in your messages.

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NoteMail uses the exact same intece and features asGMX. You can create an email account at GMX as well but youre only given the option to have it end inorgmx.However, you do get unlimited storage space with GMX.

You can also create up to disposable addresses that are linked to your main email address but dont contain your name or any other personal data. This is extremely useful if youre often signing up for web accounts and dont wish to have your regular inbox spammed or filled with useless email; just delete the disposable address if the spam becomes too overwhelming.

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The first thing that stood out with this email service is that you cant proceed with creating your account until you make a really secure password. Some places will urge you to make your password stronger but still accept it; Tutanotarequiresit.

However, unlike most others, you can forward multiple messages with ease; theyll send as file attachments, import files directly fromYandex.Disk, send an SMS copy of an email, import s by their URL, download emails to EML files, delay when the email should send, get notified when the message sends and even be reminded later if you dont get a reply.

The web intece is really easy to use and provides nice menu transitions that really bring together the mail folders and email settings.

In addition to regular mail features, you can also connect to Skype, Facebook and a couple other messaging services so you can stay connected without having to leave Outlook.

An AOL email address gives you an email likeexampleaol, but you can also receive mail if someone sends you messages atexampleaim.

When youre ready to send an encrypted message, be sure to click that button before you send the message. That is, unless you send a message to another ProtonMail user, in which case its always encrypted.

Yahoo Mail also gives you access to an online calendar and an instant messaging service. You can even connect external email accounts to Yahoo Mail so you can use one intece to manage all your mail, even from services like Gmail and Outlook Mail.

AOL Mail is another free email account option. The main where you find your email also shows top stories from AOL, which can either be viewed as a nice addition or seem cluttered depending on personal preference.

Though Zoho Mail does have a free email service, Zoho as a whole is like an online suite of several apps that are centered around business use.

You can also insert GIFs directly from a builtin GIF collection, and stationery with a similar stationery browser.

Also included is a todo list and calendar with the ability to make events right from emails. Theres also a changer so your emails can have a nice . You can import contacts in the CSV, TXT or LDIF file formats.

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The maximum expiration time is four weeks days but you can choose something sooner, too, like days or hours, or a combination of both e.g. one day and four hours, or just one hour.

I also like the ct that you can configure an alert to have AOL send you a message when certain criteria are met, such as if an email from a specific contact that includes a certain word in the subject or body is delivered to your inbox.

Users can enjoy easy access to other free Microsoft services through Outlook Mail because its part ofMicrosoft Office Online.

Free email accounts may seem like a dime a dozen, but there are some free services that stand way above the rest. This article will help guide you through the best free email accounts and which features make them the best.

As would seem obvious, Yahoo Mail is the free email account offered by Yahoo. Each new user gets a whopping TB of free storage for email!

Something else I like about Yahoo Mail is the builtin news reader and notepad. You can switch to those views in seconds, and then just as easily move back to reading and sending emails.

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If you choose to encrypt the message, you can also set an expiration time so that the message is destroyed and unreadable after the duration you specify the time starts the moment you send the message.

Gmail shares a massive GB of email storage with other Google services, which makes it super easy to share files with email recipients straight from yourGoogle Driveaccount without having to leave Gmail, even files as large as GB!

Several awesome themes are available with Yahoo Mail that changes the entire and scheme of the website, which makes for a pretty unique design.

The email domains are categorized into sections so its easy to find one that relates to certain jobs, hobbies, tech and music. There are also US, world and spiritual domains.

Free email accounts created with Outlook are configured aampleoutlook.

You can make an account with any of these domainstutanota, tutanota, tutamail,, .

The main difference between ProtonMail and the other email services above is that this one is centered around encryption. The idea is that you can send mail without fear that the people at ProtonMail, or anyone else besides the recipient, can read the message.

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The major difference I find in Mail versus the other providers in this list is that you can choose between over free domains. Instead of being stuck with one, likeoutlookorgmail, you can pick from a huge list.

Yahoo Mail email addresses are set up aampleyahoo.

Many advanced settings are customizable like changing the spam filters sensitivity, controlling who if anyone can you send you mail, enabling a reading pane and blocking mail containing specific words.

You can choose to have aprotonmailorprotonmail.chemail address.

SinceGoogle Calendaris another part of Googles list of services, its equally as easy to integrate it with your emails, like to instantly add events taken from messages.

Similar to Google, your Yandex email account makes it possible to access all of these services using one login.

Recipients who receive encrypted messages open the message through a link that asks for the password, where its decrypted and ed in the browser. They can reply through an encrypted channel via the same message they decrypted, and dont even need to have a ProtonMail account.

In your mail settings, you can clearly read the IMAP and POP server settings, which are very useful if youre using your AOL email address with offline email clients. Most other email providers dont this information, so thats a positive for sure.

You can even view your Gmail messages without an internet connection if you installGmail Offline.

Even though it isnt as well known as Gmail, Yahoo, etc., Tutanota supports an email signature, mobile apps for Android and iOS, GB of email storage, automatic contact creation for recipients you email, spam rules, andpremium features for a cost.

Since there is a premium plan available, the free one is limited to MB of storage space, can only send up to messages per day which is more than enough for most people anyway, andrequiresthe Sent with ProtonMail Secure Email signature.

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It also is probably important to you what your actual email address is. If you cant find one that you like at your first pick for a free email account, I recommend moving onto another one to see if its available there. Remember to try different combinations and variations to get an address thats not taken.

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Once you create your email account, you can even build up to alias addresses that work with your main address. For example, if you were to build adogloveraddress as your main one, and then use anasiaaddress as an alias, any messages sent to either address will go to yourdogloverinbox.

Streamsis a feature in Zoho Mail that makes it easy to create groups where you and your team members can interact with shared messages and attachments. It works a bit like a private social media site.

You can, however, connect other email addresses to it so that you can send and receive those messages through Mail. Theres also an email filter, calendar and file storage vault with GB of free space.

TipIf you have aYouTubeaccount, you can login to Gmail with the same information since YouTube is another Google service thats accessed through a Google account.

NoteMicrosofts email addresses used to be setup ashotmailandlive. If you have one of those addresses you can still login to Outlook, but anynewaccounts set up will include the neweroutlook.

When choosing a free email account, youll want to look for a few characteristics to help you determine which one is best for you. The free email accounts will differ in how much email storage you get, what the intece looks like and how it can be customized, and what s of advanced features are included, like messaging, filters and the ability to import.

The compose window when new emails is a bit similar to Gmail, but one useful difference is that its easy to switch between inline attachments and normal file attachments. This means you can switch a file attachment to be embedded in the email and just as easily reverse it to make it a file attachment.

The first thing I noticed about Zoho Mail when composing a message is how minimal the design is, which can be a great thing. When you make a new message, you can quickly switch between the new message and the rest of your mail through the small s on the right side of the .

Changing how you work with Outlook Mail couldnt be easier. You can very quickly change the scheme of the and choose where the reading pane should .

NoteIts important to never reveal personal information in your email address, like your home address or phone number. Its common for email addresses to be a name with a couple numbers, or a word or phrase that means something.

Inbrowser sound alerts are also supported, and there are several options you can choose from. This sort of flexibility is usually not available with web mail accounts, but AOL Mail is an exception.

Like some email providers, you can quickly filter your messages to only show unread or read emails, or flagged or unflagged messages.

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You may want to know what are carbs and how to avoid them. A diet thats low carb can mean different things for different people. Generally speaking, however, what qualifies as a lowcarb diet is one where youre getting only around percent or sometimes much less of your daily calories from sources of carbohydrates such as added sugar, grains, fruit or starchy veggies. This usually results in about grams of carbs or less. In some cases, for example if someone is following aketogenic diet, also known as a lowcarb, high t LCHF diet, they may choose to eat even less carbohydrates, only around grams daily in order to enter into ketosis the state of burning t for fuel instead of glucose/carbs.

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In other words, fiber is not counted toward net carbs because fiber isnt actually digestible once consumed, nor does it spike blood sugar levels like glucose does. For this reason most people eating even a very lowcarb diet try to still consume somefoods high in fiber,such as nonstarchy veggies and sometimes nuts/seeds.

The same can be said for some beans or legumes, such aschickpeasthat can be made into flour, orhummusthat makes a creamy addition to many lowcarb recipes. These foods are high in antioxidants, provide muchneeded fiber and help provide enough sweetness to kill a sugar craving without needing to add extra cane sugar. For that reason, fruits and starchy veggies I recommend including in your diet are

Even for those following a very lowcarb/ketogenic diet keeping carbs around net gramsdailyor less, they can still eat all the nonstarchy veggies they want considering how they are filled with fiber, have a high nutrient and water content, are filling, and are very low in calories overall.

Enhanced satiety from meals, reduced hunger and decreased cravings especially for carbheavy foods and sweets

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To sustain ahealing dietlongterm, develop a solid understanding of how many carbs daily from a wellrounded diet you can tolerate without gaining weight or suffering from other health problems.  You use this information about your unique biochemistry to sustain a normal eating pattern complete with things like healthy proteins and ts, along with fresh veggies, fruits and even some whole starchy veggies, legumes or grains if they work well for you.

You may be wondering what has carbs and what doesnt. To be clear, just because a food or meal is low in carbs doesnt necessarily mean its healthy! In many cases, thequalityof the carbs you eat is even more important than thequantity. For the sake of keeping processed/synthetic ingredients out of your diet, I recommend avoiding lowcarb packaged foods like most commercial protein bars ormeal replacement shakes. These may provide t and protein, and be low in sugar or carbs, but theyre still not beneficial overall if they contain things like processed protein powders, refined oils and artificial sweeteners.

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Lowcarb foods include nonstarchy veggies like leafy greens or cruciferous veggies, healthy ts like coconut or olive oil, butter and hard cheeses, meat, seafood and eggs. Moderate sources of carbs are nuts, seeds, beans, legumes and some starchier veggies.

While mostroot veggiesand fruits arent usually considered to be low carb, the majority are still very nutrientrich, low in sugar overall, and good additions to any diet. In ct, pured, shredded, riced or cooked root veggies and fruits can often sub for added sweeteners or even grains in many recipes. A great example is cauliflower rice.

Most commercial fruits and fruit juices juice is high in sugar, with the exception of lime or lemon juice

made with a protein of your choice and lots of veggies

. Cashews andBrazil nutsand just about all other nuts or seeds too

It can be wise to experiment with a very lowcarb diet for a period of time, but once youre working on maintenance the way you intend to basically continue eating forever, aim to eat a variety of foods, including lots of different plants that will contain at least some carbs.

The information in our articles are NOT intended to replace a oneonone relationship with a qualified health care professional and are not intended as medical advice.

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, and usually a easier time maintaining a healthy weight. Once glucose from carbohydrate foods are no longer available for energy, the body will use stored body t instead, or t and protein consumed from foods.

have been shown to have many benefits, especially for those who can afford to kick a sugar habit or lose weight in order to improve their health, many are hesitant to try this way of eating out of fear of giving up many delicious foods. They wonder if lowcarb foods will still be enjoyable.

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If you were to aim for about grams of net carbs daily, split between three main meals, each lowcarb meal would be around grams of net carbs. What are net carbs? They are the amount of carbs left over when fiber grams are subtracted from total carbs.

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What can you do with lowcarb foods? Lowcarb recipes include ones that can be made without things like added sugars, refined grains or artificial sweeteners, such as protein shakes, smoothies, salads, slow cooker recipes, jitas, burgers or meatballs, and many more.

What would a lowcarb meal that has grams of net carbs look like?

This rule doesnt work percent of the time. For example, pumpkins grow above ground and are higher in carbs, but its a good place to start.

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. This is due to better control over insulin and blood sugar glucose spikes. For those who are prediabetics or have diabetes, this is often crucial for preventing symptoms from worsening or complications.

A quick and healthy alternative to fried rice,cauliflower fried ricewill become your new goto for a tasty lunch. Chop up some cauliflower and add it to a blender or food processor to create a fluffy rice. Add in eggs for protein, ghee as a healthier alternative to butter, onions and garlic, and you have an easy, delicious fried rice.

By Rachael Link, MS, RD Weve all heard the saying an apple …

Remember that regardless of what number of carbs you aim to eat everyday, the real goal is to consistently consume more real, whole foods and reduce intake of processed ingredients.

Lowcarb diets can help people lose weight quickly and potentially improve certain health conditions like sugar dependence, brain fog, tigue, and risk ctors for meolic syndrome or diabetes.

For breakst, try a hearty meal ofHuevos Rancheros. This classic Mexican dish includes ground beef, eggs, peppers and spices all served on a tortilla with fresh tomato, avocado and cilantro. With this lowcarb meal, your day will be off to a healthy, proteinpacked start, sure to keep you feeling full and energized until lunchtime.

Creatine Monohydrate Beneficial or Just Dangerous?

Sometimes, improvements in hormonal balance. This often results in better sleep, less tigue, reduced pain or muscle weakness, and more energy overall.

Empanadas or quesadillas filled with grassfed beef and cheese, made with an almond or

Beans and legumes such as chickpeas, black beans,mung beans, adzuki beans, etc. are also not necessarily low carb, but still can be healthy in moderate amounts. If you do choose to eat legumes or grains, I recommendsoaking and sproutingmost first before you cook them. This helps release more of their protein, vitamins and minerals while also them easier to digest.

Sugar and foods that contain artificial or added sweeteners honey, cane sugar, coconut sugar, etc.

Neuroprotective effects and enhanced cognitive performance, including less

. Herbs like turmeric, ginger, oregano, rosemary, basil, real sea salt, pepper, etc.

Lettuce cups, or a collard wrap, filled with things like veggies, sesame dressing and shredded chicken

. Mustard just avoiding highsugar kinds like honey mustard

All the foods below have zero carbs. Note that I recommend always looking for wildcaught fish and avoiding most shellfish such as shrimp, which tend to be higher in heavy metals like mercury. Grassfed beef and other tty red meats like lamb are also fine to include, as is poultry and cagefree eggs. While some ketogenic lowcarb  diets includeporkand processed meats like bacon, I dont recommend eating these unhealthy meats.

Replacing carbheavy foods in your diet with lowcarb foods like nonstarchy veggies,healthy tsand highquality proteins takes these benefits a step further reducing hunger, you feel satisfied and possibly even reversing certain nutrient deficiencies.

Removing foods such as bread, cereals, sweetened drinks, processed dairy and even whole grains or starchy veggies from your diet are important dietary changes that will result in your body releasing less insulin. This helps to balance blood sugar levels, reduce cravings and tigue, speed up weight loss, leave you feeling more clearheaded at least after you initially get used to the change and even reduces your risk for things like heart disease and diabetes.

If youre having trouble remembering which s of veggies are nonstarchy, and therefore lower in carbs, heres a good rule of thumb

Below are dozens of healthy lowcarb foods to fill your diet with

.Bone brothwhether to drink alone or use in recipes

If youre looking to drastically reduce carbs such as following a ketogenic diet, youll also want to avoid most dairy products that contain milk, yogurt, ricotta or cottage cheese. Higher t, lowcarb cheeses are often included even on very lowcarb diets because they have very few carbs.

or dips in energy, improved memory in the elderly and reduced symptoms of epilepsy

Depending on your overall health and goals, its not usually necessarily to completely avoid healthy sources of carbs in moderation, like fruit or starchy veggies. In some cases, sprouted or soaked grains and legumes higher in carbs can also be included in an otherwise balanced diet that includes lots of lowcarb foods.

Most veggies that are grown above ground are considered nonstarchy and, therefore, have fewer carbs cruciferous veggies like broccoli, leafy greens, peppers, chard and cabbage for example. Some squashes are also nonstarchy, including spaghetti squash and zucchini.

. Teas including green, black, oolong or white

The Best LowCarb Foods, Plus Recipe Ideas Tips

In athletes, possible vorable changes in body mass and body composition, along with increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake VO max and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold VO LT

When cleaning up your diet and trying some new lowcarb recipes, its also wise to steer clear of diet or light foods that have reduced or low t and artificial ingredients. To make up for lost t, these products are usually made with extra flour or carbs, thickeners, emulsifiers orartificial sweeteners. And although they may not high in carbs or cane sugar, I would definitely avoid foods made with transts or hydrogenated oils, which is mostly junk foods, packaged foods or st/fried foods.

The Best LowCarb Foods, Plus Recipe Ideas Tips

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While eating a low carbohydrate diet might not be the magic bullet to lasting weight loss for every person, its very helpful for most people to cut back on added sources of sugar and carbs. Even if you only plan to reduce your sugar and carb intake for a period of time, perhaps to break asugar addictionor kickstart a healthier way of eating that includes less processed foods, youre likely to experience benefits relatively st.

A large body of research shows that for those who make good candidates, following a lowcarb diet has many health benefits. While its not always necessary to give up all unprocessed, wholefood sources of carbs like fruit and starchier veggies mentioned above, cutting down onprocessed foods, added sugar and even grains can help many experience benefits like

Want to lose weight, use new natural remedies or recipes, or get stronger?

This quick and easy recipe takes just minutes to prepare. Packed with omega ts and healthy protein,pecan pesto salmonis an incredible dish youll want to make again. Serve it with a side salad of leafy greens and your meal is complete!

Benefits of Fasting the Best Types of Fasting

. Herbal teas ginger, chamomile, honeybush, peppermint, chai, etc.

If youre looking for healthylowcarb snack ideasto bring onthego with you, your best bet is to make your own. Lowcarb snacks you can prepare yourself at home using things like nuts, seeds, hummus, coconut flour or coconut oil, protein powders like whey or bone broth, cocoa energy bites, cauliflower tots, and even lowcarb sweets like cookies, muffins or donuts. And quickest of all are up some lowcarbprotein shake recipes.

A ounce serving of protein such as chicken breast along with cups of nonstarchy veggies like broccoli and peppers, a side salad with mixed greens and lespoons of oil or dressing. This would equate to even less than grams of net carbs. If you added a starchier veggie instead, such as beets or turnips, youd be consuming more carbs but still not many. To be considered a moderate or highcarb meal youd have to add something like grains, fruit, an added sweetener such as honey or potatoes which tend to have in the range of grams of carbs or more per serving.

Rest assured that when following a healthy lowcarb diet, its still possible to keep enjoying all sorts of awesome recipes. Lowcarb recipes include everything from slow cooker chicken and veggies to grassfed burgers. And what aboutlowcarb breakstsor travelfriendly snacks? These can include green smoothies or protein shakes,lowcarb dessertsmade from things like coconut or almond flour, cagefree hardboiled eggs, or newer varieties of grassfed beef jerky, for example.

And many more options like smoothies, casseroles and crockpot recipes

If youre intending to eat very low carbs, avoid all grains including wheat, barley, oats, rice and other whole grains. This also includes all foods made with grain flour such as bread, cakes, biscuits, chips, cereal, muffins, pasta, etc.

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Wondering what s of foods you reallyshouldnthave when on a lowcarb diet? Because theyre higher in things like added sugar and carbs from flour or thickeners, limiting the foods below will keep your carb intake on the lower end

. Hard cheese, sour cream and heavy cream all are low in carbs, but very importantly I recommend grassfed and organic dairy whenever possible, ideally made from raw milk. Cheeses low in carbs include blue cheese, cheddar cheese, goat, feta, Swiss, parmesan and asiago.

Most premade condiments, sauces or packet mixes, which tend to be high in sugar

Veggies grown below the ground, also sometimes called root veggies, are usually richer in starch and carbs like potatoes, carrots, turnips and beets, for example.

Orange Nutrition Benefits Skin, Immunity More

by Erin Young Green tea is renowned for its health benefits …

. Cocoa powder raw and unsweetened is best

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free list low carbohydrate fooCabbage

free list low carbohydrate fooCabbageTang L, Zirpoli GR, Jayaprakash V, et al. Cruciferous vegele intake is inversely associated with lung cancer risk among smokers a casecontrol study. BMC Cancer , . .

Kushad MM, Brown AF, Kurilich AC, et al. Variation of glucosinolates in vegele crops of Brassica oleracea. J Agric Food Chem Apr;. . PMID.

Savoy cabbage refers to cabbage that has more crinkled or ruffly leaves. The leaves may also be less densely packed together. Savoy cabbage also typically has a more delicate ure than ordinary green or red varieties. However, there are light green, dark green, red, and purple varieties of savoy cabbage, just like there are similar s of nonsavoy varieties. Most of the savoy cabbage varieties commonly available in U.S. grocery stores, however, have leaves that are lighter green or greenyellow in . The subgroup name sabauda is often used to refer to the savoy subgroup as a whole.

Hu R, Khor TO, Shen G, Jeong WS, Hebbar V, Chen C, Xu C, Reddy B, Chada K, Kong AN. Cancer chemoprevention of intestinal polyposis in ApcMin/ mice by sulforaphane, a natural product derived from cruciferous vegele. Carcinogenesis. May ; [Epub ahead of print. . PMID.

Tang L, Zirpoli GR, Guru K, et al. Consumption of Raw Cruciferous Vegeles is Inversely Associated with Bladder Cancer Risk. Apr ;. .

Due to these close plant relationships, you may find the terms choy and cabbage overlapping irly extensively in common vegele names. For example, you may find bok choy being referred to as white cabbage or Chinese cabbage even though bok choy does not belong to theBrassica oleraceagenus species that serves as the home for broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and kohlrabi. As mentioned earlier in this Description section, theBrassicaceaemily of plants has some very closely related groups and this closeness is witnessed by the common naming of cabbage and choy plants.

Kurilich AC, Tsau GJ, Brown A, et al. Carotene, tocopherol, and ascorbate contents in subspecies of Brassica oleracea. J Agric Food Chem Apr;. . PMID.

Easy RecipesOurRecipe Assistantwill help you find the recipe that suits your personal needs. The majority of recipes we offer can be both prepared and cooked in minutes or less from start to finish; a whole meal can be prepared in minutes. A number of them can also be prepared ahead of time and enjoyed later.Worlds Healthiest

As you might imagine from the complicated set of descriptions above, it has been equally complicated for plant researchers to trace the exact history of cabbage and its development. Because of the linguistic overlap between choy and cabbage and because of the cultivation ofBrassicaceaplants in Europe, Asia, and Africa, there are some conflicting analyses of cabbage and its exact origins. Most histories, however, point to the presence of wild cabbage in Europe as the most direct, distant ancestor of the cabbages we currently purchase in the grocery store. However, if we lived in Europe during the first years of wild cabbage growth over , years ago, we would be unlikely to recognize any of those wild cabbage plants as cabbages. Thats because the original European forms of this plant were nonheadforming and much more closely resembled cruciferous vegeles like kale or collards.

Pagliaro B, Santozza C, Simonelli F, et al. Phytochemical Compounds and Protection from Cardiovascular Diseases A State of the Art. Biomed Res Int. ;.

Finally, several recent studies have point out that raw cabbage can offer greater amounts of certain nutrients that either cooked or fermented cabbage. In one study, the incorporation of fresh, uncooked, chopped red cabbage was recommended as an optimal way to derive nutritional benefits from this cruciferous vegele.

While green cabbage is the most commonly eaten variety of cabbage, we highly recommend trying red cabbage because of its added nutritional benefits and its robust hearty flavor. We dont think you will be disappointed. The rich red of red cabbage reflects its concentration of anthocyanin polyphenols, which bring along with them unique antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties.

Enjoy the mild flavor of bok choy by using our Healthy Saut method of cooking. OurMinute Healthy Sauted Bok Choyrecipe will give you great tasting bok choy in a matter of minutes!Red Cabbage

MartinezVillaluenga C, Penas E, Sidro B, et al. White cabbage fermentation improves ascorbigen content, antioxidant and nitric oxide production inhibitory activity in LPSinduced macrophages. LWT Food Science and Technology, Volume , Issue , April , s .

Tiwari U, Sheehy E, Rai D, Gaffney M, et al. Quantitative human exposure model to assess the level of glucosinolates upon thermal processing of cruciferous vegeles. LWT Food Science and Technology, Volume , Issue , September , s .

Glucosinolates in Cabbage and Their AntiCancer Thiocyanates

Even though the inside of cabbage is usually clean since the outer leaves protect it, you still may want to clean it. Wash whole cabbage head under running water or remove the thick fibrous outer leaves and cut the cabbage into pieces and then wash under running water.

Choose cabbage heads that are firm and dense with shiny, crisp, ful leaves free of cracks, bruises, and blemishes. Severe damage to the outer leaves is suggestive of worm damage or decay that may reside in the inner core as well.

Cabbage is an excellent source of vitamin K, vitamin C and vitamin B. It is also a very good source of manganese, dietary fiber, potassium, vitamin B, folate and copper. Additionally, cabbage is a good source of choline, phosphorus, vitamin B, magnesium, calcium, selenium, iron, pantothenic acid, protein and niacin.

Nugrahedi PY, Hantoro I, Verkerk R, et al. Practices and health perception of preparation of Brassica vegeles translating survey data to technological and nutritional implications. Int J Food Sci Nutr. ;.

For education only, consult a healthcare practitioner for any health problems.

If you need to store a partial head of cabbage, cover it tightly with plastic wrap and refrigerate. Since the vitamin C content of cabbage can more quickly degrade once it has been cut, you should use the remainder within a couple of days.

* Indolecarbinol IC is not an isothiocyanate. Its a benzopyrrole, and it is only formed when isothiocyanates made from glucobrassicin are further broken down into nonsulfur containing compounds.

It would also be wrong to move on from this issue of digestive support without mentioning the very good fiber support provided by cabbage. At nearly grams per cup and only calories, cabbage provides nearly gram of fiber for every calories! This fiber density of cabbage actually ranks it above some our WHFoods legumes, including our beans, lentils, and dried peas. This very low calorie cost of cabbage fiber makes it easy to add fiber to your diet without adding calories. And this added fiber can be very helpful in improving digestion of food.Cardiovascular Support from Cabbage

Order this Incredible nd Edition at the same low price of . and also get FREE gifts valued at ..Read more

Silberstein JL, Parsons JK. Evidencebased principles of bladder cancer and diet. Urology. Feb;. .

To Healthy Saut cabbage, heat TBS of vegele broth, chicken broth, or water in a stainless steel skillet. Once bubbles begin to form add shredded cabbage, cover, and Healthy Saut for minutes. For great Mediterranean flavor, transfer to a bowl and toss with Mediterranean Dressing. See ourMinute Healthy Sauted Red Cabbagerecipe for details on how to prepare this dish. Ginger is a great addition to your Healthy Sauted cabbage; you can also add rice vinegar and sesame seeds.How to EnjoyA Few Quick Serving IdeasBraise red cabbage with a chopped apple and red wine. This is a childfriendly dish since the alcohol but not the flavor or the flavonoids will evaporate.Combine shredded red and green cabbage with fresh lemon juice, olive oil, and seasonings such as turmeric, cumin, coriander, and black pepper to make coleslaw with an Indian twist.

The word brassica translates in Latin as cabbage. However, this connection between cabbage and brassica vegeles can sometimes be confusing.

The nutrient profiles provided in this website are derived from The Food Processor, Version .., ESHA Research, Salem, Oregon, USA. Among the , food items in the master daase and nutritional components per item, specific nutrient values were frequently missing from any particular food item. We chose the designation to represent those nutrients for which no value was included in this version of the daase.

Zhao H, Lin J, Grossman HB, Hernandez LM, Dinney CP, Wu X. Dietary isothiocyanates, GSTM, GSTT, NAT polymorphisms and bladder cancer risk. Int J Cancer. May ;. . PMID.

Recent studies on cabbage intakeespecially studies on intake of red cabbagehave looked carefully at the potential for cardiovascular support from this vegele. The results have been encouraging. Blood levels of betacarotene, lutein, and total blood antioxidant capacity have been found to increase along with increasing intake of red cabbage intake. At the same time, total cholesterol, total LDL cholesterol, and total oxidized LDL have been found to decrease. Reductions in oxidized LDL are a particularly noteworthy finding since oxidized LDL is a known risk ctor for development of atherosclerosis. One of the ways in which cabbage intake can lower your total and LDL cholesterol is through the process of binding with bile acids. Your liver uses cholesterol as a basic building block to produce bile acids. Bile acids are specialized molecules that aid in the digestion and absorption of t, and when they are present in your digestive tract, fiberrelated nutrients in cabbage can bind together with them for eventual excretion. Whenever this process takes place, your liver needs to replace the excreted bile acids by drawing upon your existing supply of cholesterol, and as a result, your cholesterol level drops down.Description

The George Mateljan Foundation is a notforprofit foundation with no commercial interests or

Find Out What Foods You Should Eat This WeekAlso find out about the recipe, nutrient and hot topic of the week on ourhome .

There should be only a few outer loose leaves attached to the stem. If not, it may be an indication of undesirable ure and taste. Avoid buying precut cabbage, either halved or shredded, since once cabbage is cut, it often begins to lose its valuable vitamin C content.

Singh BK, Sharma SR, and Singh B. Antioxidant enzymes in cabbage Variability and inheritance of superoxide dismutase, peroxidase and catalase. Scientia Horticulturae, Volume , Issue , February , s .

Voorrips LE, Goldbohm RA, et al. Vegele and fruit consumption and risks of colon and rectal cancer in a prospective cohort study The Netherlands Cohort Study on Diet and Cancer. Am J Epidemiol. Dec ;. . PMID.

Hounsome N, Hounsome B, Tomos D, et al. Changes in antioxidant compounds in white cabbage during winter storage. Postharvest Biology and Technology, Volume , Issue , May , s .

GIvery lowNutrientDRI/DVvitamin Kvitamin Cvitamin Bmanganesefiberpotassiumcoppervitamin Bfolatecholinephosphorusvitamin Bseleniummagnesiumironcalciumpantothenic acidproteinvitamin B

Vidrih R, Filip S, Hribar J. Content of higher tty acids in green vegeles. Czech Journal of Food Sciences , Special Issue SS. .

Kahlon TS, Chiu MC, Chapman MH. Steam cooking significantly improves in vitro bile acid binding of collard greens, kale, mustard greens, broccoli, green bell pepper, and cabbage. Jun;. .

Yet anotherBrassicaceaemily vegele that you may hear being referred to as cabbage is Tuscan cabbage. At this point in time, the term Tuscan cabbage does not have a very reliable food counterpart in the grocery store. Cavolo nerowhich literally means black cabbage in Italianis most often a variety ofBrassica oleraceamost closely resembling kale. In ct, Tuscan kale is a more common name for the seeds of this plant than either Tuscan cabbage or black cabbage. But once again, you can see the amazing closeness in the food naming and food relationships in thisBrassicaceamily of plants.History

In addition to the nutrients highlighted in our ratings chart, here is an indepth nutritional profile for Cabbage. This profile includes information on a full array of nutrients, including carbohydrates, sugar, soluble and insoluble fiber, sodium, vitamins, minerals, tty acids, amino acids and more.

Ambrosone CB, Tang L. Cruciferous vegele intake and cancer prevention role of nutrigenetics. Cancer Prev Res Phila Pa. Apr;. .

Prawan A, Saw CL, Khor TO et al. AntiNFkappaB and antiinflammatory activities of synthetic isothiocyanates effect of chemical structures and cellular signaling. Chem Biol Interact. May ;. .

If youd like even more recipes and ways to prepare cabbage the NutrientRich Way, you may want to exploreThe Worlds Healthiest Foodsbook.Inidual ConcernsCabbage and Goitrogens

Stewart H, Hyman J, Buzby JC, et al. How much do fruits and vegeles cost? U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA Economic Research Service ERS, Economic Information Bulletin , February . Washington, D.C.

In , U.S. adult intake of cabbage averaged about seven pounds per year. This volume of intake placed cabbage in th place in as the most commonly consumed vegele. In terms of food production and the U.S. food supply chain, nearly half of all cabbage produced for the retail marketplace is ultimately processed into coleslaw. Production of sauerkraut accounts for another of all cabbage production, and most of the remaining cabbage is sold as produce in the form of head cabbage. The states of California, Florida, Georgia, New York, and Texas jointly produce about of the cabbage grown in the U.S., even though cabbage is widely grown across most of the country. About . billion pounds of cabbage are grown in the U.S. each year, with about million pounds being exported and at least that amount or greater being imported from other countries each year. Mexicofollowed by Canadaaccount for the majority of cabbage imports into the U.S.How to Select and Store

Fermentation of raw cabbage has also been shown in several recent studies to provide some health benefits that heatbased cooking methods cannot. For example, fermentation of cabbage has been shown to result in increased formation of ascorbigen, a welldocumented antioxidant formed by the interaction of vitamin C ascorbic acid with indolecarbinol IC. IC is the isothiocyanate that can be made from glucobrassicin, one of the glucosinolates present in cabbage. The creation of ascorbigen through cabbage fermentation has further been shown to improve oxidative stress and antioxidant capacity in several animal studies.

Zielinska M, Lewandowska U, Podsedek A, et al. Orally available extract from Brassica oleracea var. capitata rubra attenuates experimental colitis in mouse models of inflammatory bowel diseases. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume , August , s .

Foodsis expandedWhats in our new book more sSmart MenuNutrientRich Cooking New RecipesNew Nutrient Articles and ProfilesNew Photos and Design

Steinbrecher A, Linseisen J. Dietary Intake of Inidual Glucosinolates in Participants of the EPICHeidelberg Cohort Study. Ann Nutr Me ;. .

Given the roles of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation as risk ctors for cancer, the antioxidant and antiinflammatory richness of cabbage would provide anticancer health benefits without the addition of cabbages glucosinolates. But glucosinolates are cabbages trump card with regard to anticancer benefits. The glucosinolates found in cabbage can be converted into isothiocyanate compounds that are cancer preventive for a variety of different cancers, including bladder cancer, breast cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer. Some of the key glucosinolates present in cabbage and their corresponding isothiocyanates are listed in the chart below.

Once you move past these basic cabbage s, however, some of the terms that you will hear to describe cabbage can become confusing. For example, you will sometimes hear the term Chinese cabbage being used to refer to cabbage s. However, cabbage s referred to as Chinese seldom belong to theBrassica oleraceagenus/species of plant, but rather, to theBrassica ranus/species.Brassica rapais the genus/species to which boy choy and turnips also belong.

This chart graphically details the DV that a serving of Cabbage provides for each of the nutrients of which it is a good, very good, or excellent source according to our Food Rating System. Additional information about the amount of these nutrients provided by Cabbage can be found in theFood Rating System Chart. A link that takes you to the InDepth Nutritional Profile for Cabbage, featuring information over nutrients, can be found under the Food Rating System Chart.Health BenefitsDescriptionHistoryHow to Select and StoreTips for Preparing and CookingHow to EnjoyInidual ConcernsNutritional ProfileReferencesHealth Benefits

While cardiovascular protection and decreased risk of diabetes have been areas of increased research interest with respect to cabbage intake, it is the area of cancer prevention that still offers the largest number of healthrelated studies for this cruciferous vegele. To date, more than studies have examined the role of this cruciferous vegele in cancer prevention and in some cases, cancer treatment. The uniqueness of cabbage in cancer prevention is due to the three different s of nutrient richness found in this widely enjoyed food. The three s are antioxidant richness, antiinflammatory richness, and richness in glucosinolates.AntioxidantRelated Health Benefits of Cabbage

The isothiocyanates ITCs made from cabbages glucosinolates act to protect us against cancer through a variety of different mechanisms. In some cases, they help regulate inflammation by altering the activity of messaging molecules within our bodys inflammatory system. In other cases, they improve our bodys detoxification system and leave our cells with a smaller toxic load. But the bottom line is decreased risk of cancer from consumption of cabbage and its glucosinolates. Weve seen one study, from Poland, showing impressive reduction of breast cancer risk in women consuming large amounts of cabbage. In this particular study, this reduction in risk was associated with consumption of at least cabbage servings per week, in comparison with the onceperweek serving consumed by women with higher breast cancer risk.

Rungapamestry V, Duncan AJ, Fuller Z et al. Effect of cooking brassica vegeles on the subsequent hydrolysis and meolic te of glucosinolates. Proc Nutr Soc. Feb;. .

Cabbage has a round shape and is composed of superimposed leaf layers. It is a member of the food mily traditionally known as cruciferous vegeles and is very closely related to kale, broccoli, collards and Brussels sprouts. All cruciferous vegeles provide integrated nourishment across a wide variety of nutritional categories and provide broad support across a wide variety of body systems as well. For more on cruciferous vegeles seeEating Healthy with Cruciferous VegelesFeeling Great with Cruciferous Vegeles

Bacchetti T, Tullii D, Masciangelo S, et al. Effect of black and red cabbage on plasma carotenoid levels, lipid profile and oxidized low density lipoprotein. Journal of Functional Foods, Volume , May , s .

Youll want to include cabbage as one of the cruciferous vegeles you eat on a regular basis if you want to receive the ntastic health benefits provided by the cruciferous vegele mily. At a minimum, we recommend / cup of cruciferous vegeles on a daily basis. This amount is equivalent to approximately cups per week. A more optimal intake amount would be / cups per day, or about cups per week. You can use ourVeggie Advisorfor help in figuring out your best cruciferous vegele options.

At WHFoods, we encourage the purchase of certified organically grown foods, and cabbage is no exception. Repeated research studies on organic foods as a group show that your likelihood of exposure to contaminants such as pesticides and heavy metals can be greatly reduced through the purchased of certified organic foods, including cabbage. In many cases, you may be able to find a local organic grower who sells cabbage but has not applied for formal organic certification either through the U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA or through a state agency. Examples of states offering statecertified organic foods include California, New York, Oregon, Vermont, and Washington. However, if you are shopping in a large supermarket, your most reliable source of organically grown cabbage is very likely to be cabbage that s the USDA organic logo.

Put the whole head in a plastic bag in the crisper of your refrigerator. Red and green cabbage will keep if stored this way for about weeks while Savoy cabbage will keep for about week.

Because cabbages inner leaves are protected from the sunlight by the surrounding leaves, they are oftentimes lighter in . However, the outer of cabbage leaves is still the most common way of iding cabbage into s. For cabbage, the two basic s are green and red. Green cabbages can range from very dark to very light in . In ct, some of the lightered green cabbage varieties are actually referred to as white cabbages. The subgroup alba meaning white in Latin is often used to refer to the green cabbage subgroup as a whole. Red cabbage can also range widely in , with some appearing deep purple in . The subgroup rubra is often used to refer to the red cabbage subgroup as a whole. Youll also sometimes hear the darkest shades of purple cabbage being referred to as black cabbage.

Traditional methods of steaming or boiling make cabbage watery. Traditional methods of steaming or boiling make cabbage watery. To avoid this result and promote optimal flavor, we recommend Healthy Sauteing cabbage. Slice cabbage into /inch slices and let sit for minutes to enhance its healthpromoting benefits before cooking. For more details see the NutrientRich Way of Cooking Cabbage below.

advertising. Our mission is to help you eat and cook the healthiest way for optimal health.CabbageWhats New and Beneficial About CabbageDid you know that cabbage was one of two vegele s the other was root vegeles found to be a mainstay for prevention of diabetes in a recent study of over , adults in the country of Denmark? In this very largescale study, adults who closely followed the Healthy Nordik Food Index were found to have the lowest incidence of diabetes. Importantly, this key health benefit was linked to six food intake categories fish, rye bread, oatmeal, apples and pears, root vegeles, and cabbage!Researchers have now identified nearly different flavonoids and different phenols in cabbage, all of which have demonstrated antioxidant activity. This impressive list of antioxidant phytonutrients in cabbage is one key reason why an increasing number of studies link cabbage intake to decreased risk of several cardiovascular diseases. You can read more about these inidual antioxidants in our Health Benefits section.In terms of price per edible cup, a report by the Economic Research Service at the U.S. Department of Agriculture USDA has shown cabbage to be the second most economical cooked vegele in terms of price per edible cup. Only potatoes came out slightly less expensive. The relatively low economic cost of cabbage in comparison with most other vegeles makes this cruciferous vegele a nutritional bargain, especially considering the excellent, very good, and good rankings that it achieves in our WHFoods rating system.There are literally hundreds of varieties of cabbage grown worldwide. But of special interest in recent research studies have been cabbage varieties that ll into the redpurple category. It is the anthocyanin antioxidants and in particular, a subcategory of anthocyanins called cyanidins that have been the focus of these research studies. Impressively, the anthocyanins in red cabbage are a major ctor in the ability of this cruciferous vegele to provide cardiovascular protection, including protection of red blood cells. Blood levels of betacarotene, lutein, and total blood antioxidant capacity have been found to improve along with red cabbage intake, while oxidized LDL has been found to decrease. This reduction in oxidized LDL is a good thing, since LDLan abbreviation which stands for lowdensity lipoproteinbecomes a risk ctor for blood vessel problems if excessively present in its oxidized form.Cabbage turns out to be an especially good source of sinigrin. Sinigrin is one of cabbages sulfurcontaining glucosinolates that has received special attention in cancer prevention research. The sinigrin in cabbage can be also converted into allylisothiocyanate, or AITC. This isothiocyanate compound has shown unique cancer preventive properties with respect to bladder cancer, colon cancer, and prostate cancer. Its also worth noting here that a second glucosinolate found in cabbageglucobrassicincan be converted into two cancerprotective compounds. These two compounds are indolecarbinol or IC, an isothiocyanate and diindolylmethane or DIM. DIM is an interesting sulfurcontaining compound that can be produced in the stomach from IC if the stomach juices are sufficiently acidic. Like AITC and IC, DIM has been shown to have cancerpreventive properties for the specific cancer s listed above.WHFoods Recommendations

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We recommend washing cabbage just prior to eating or cooking in order to help decrease the rate of deterioration. To cut cabbage into smaller pieces, first quarter it and remove the core. Cabbage can be cut into slices of varying thickness, grated by hand or shredded in a food processor.The NutrientRich Way of Cooking Cabbage

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Miron A, Hancianu M, Aprotosoaie AC et al. [Contributions to chemical study of the raw polysaccharide isolated from the fresh pressed juice of white cabbage leaves]. Rev Med Chir Soc Med Nat Iasi. OctDec;. .

More than a dozen cabbage phenols have been shown to contribute to its antioxidant capacity. These phenols are now known to include benzoic acid, caffeic acid, cinnamic acid, coumaric acid, dimethylbenzoic acid, gallic acid, hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxycinnamic acid, phenylacetic acid, rosmarinic acid, syringic acid, trimethylbenzoic acid, and vanillic acid.AntiInflammatory Benefits of Cabbage

Lacoppidan SA, Kyro C, Loft S, et al. Adherence to a Healthy Nordic Food Index Is Associated with a Lower Risk of Type DiabetesThe Danish Diet, Cancer and Health Cohort Study. Nutrients. Oct ;.

Here is some on why we recommend refrigerating cabbage. Whenever food is stored, four basic ctors affect its nutrient comexposure to air, exposure to light, exposure to heat, and length of time in storage. Vitamin C, vitamin B, and carotenoids are good examples of nutrients highly susceptible to heat, and for this reason, their loss from food is very likely to be slowed down through refrigeration.Tips for Preparing and CookingTips for Preparing Cabbage

Most Chinese cabbage sold in U.S. groceries belongs to the groupBrassica rapasubspeciespekinensis. The term napa cabbage is sometimes used in a way that is synonymous with Chinese cabbage, and this usage makes sense to us because the most common plant group for napa cabbage is also groupBrassica rapasubspeciespekinensis. When the terms Chinese cabbage and napa cabbage are used in this synonymous way, you can treat these varieties of cabbage as being readily identifiable by their irly large, barrelshaped heads and their somewhat crinkly leaves. In the case of napa cabbage, it is also worth noting that the designation napa comes from the Japanese word nappa rather than the region of California known as the Napa Valley.

Cabbage and all of its fellow cruciferous vegeles all belong to the mily of plants called theBrassicaceae. Despite the literal translation of braica as cabbage, however, this mily of plants is seldom referred to as the cabbage mily. Far more often, it is referred to as the mustard plant mily. Mustard, including mustard greens, belongs to this plant mily as well. When people talk about the brassica mily of plants, they are talking about the plant mily that includes both cabbage and mustard. Historically, this mily of plants was most commonly referred to as theCrucifereae. For all practical purposes, Crucifereae and Brassicaceae are interchangeable names for this plant mily. The nameCrucifereae, of course, is where the term cruciferous vegeles originates. All cruciferous vegeles are members of theBrassicaceae/Crucifereaemily.

Kusznierewicz, B, Bartoszek A., Wolska, L et al. Partial characterization of white cabbages Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. alba from different regions by glucosinolates, bioactive compounds, total antioxidant activities, and proteins. LWT Food Science and Technology , , . .

Higdon JV, Delage B, Williams DE, et al. Cruciferous Vegeles and Human Cancer Risk Epidemiologic Evidence and Mechanistic Basis. Pharmacol Res. March; . .

You may sometimes hear cabbage being described as a food that contains goitrogens, or as a food that is goitrogenic. For helpful information in this areaincluding our WHFoods Recommendationsplease see our articleWhat is meant by the term goitrogen and what is the connection between goitrogens, food, and health?.Nutritional Profile

In this con of glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, and cancer prevention, it is worth noting that one of the IC the isothiocyanate made from glucobrassicin can be further converted in the stomach under healthy acidic conditions to diindolylmethane DIM, which has also been shown to be a valuable cancerpreventive compound.Digestive Tract Support of Cabbage

However, in some recent studies on cabbage cooking, different cooking methods have been found to produce differing results. For example, when minute boiling was compared to minute streaming, minute microwaving, and minute steaming, boiling came out better than either steaming or microwaving for preserving the anthocyanins in red cabbage. For retention of vitamin C in this same study, however, steaming came out best.

Dekker M, Dekkers E, Jasper A, et al. Predictive modelling of vegele firmness after thermal pretreatments and steaming. Innovative Food Science Emerging Technologies, Volume , October , s .

Duchnowicz P, Bors M, Podsadek A, et al. Effect of polyphenols extracts from Brassica vegeles on erythrocyte membranes in vitro study. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. Nov;.

Bhattacharya A, Tang L, Li Y, et al. Inhibition of bladder cancer development by allyl isothiocyanate. Carcinogenesis. Feb;. .

Longeslished in health research is the role of cabbage juice in helping heal stomach ulcers called peptic ulcers, but more recent studies on cabbage have looked at the overall health benefits of this food for the stomach and digestive tract as a whole. Presentday studies make it clear that cabbage contains a variety of nutrients of potential benefit to our stomach and intestinal linings. These nutrients include glucosinolates and the antiinflammatory isothiocyanates or ITCs made from them, antioxidant polyphenols, and the amino acidlike substance called glutamine. In the case of ITCs, digestive tract benefits include proper regulation of bacterial populations of Helicobacter pylori inside the stomach. These bacteria are normal stomach inhabitants, but their populations can become too large and they can latch onto the stomach lining in an undesirable way. The ITCs made from cabbages glucosinolates can lower the risk of these unwanted stomach events.

The Worlds Healthiest Foods website is a leading source of information and expertise on the Healthiest Way of Eating and Cooking. Its one of the most visited websites on the internet when it comes to Healthiest Foods and Healthiest Recipes and comes up on a Google search for these phrases.Over Quick

Slicing Cabbage very thin before cooking and letting it sit for minutes helps bring out their hidden flavors and makes them more enjoyable. You can start to smell the complex rich aroma after you cut it. This is similar to the reactions that occur that causes the pungent smell when onions and garlic are cut, although the smell is not quite as intense For more on how preparation methods may impact the benefit of cruciferous vegeles, seeour article on the subject.

Even more confusing is the very close relationship between several members of this plant mily. The genus/species combination ofBrassica oleraceaeis identical for all of the following cruciferous vegeles broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cabbage, cauliflower, kale, and kohlrabi. These six vegeles are simply different subspecies and varieties ofBrassica oleraceae.

From all of the cooking methods we tried when cooking cabbage, our vorite is Healthy Saut. We think that it provides the greatest flavor. Healthy Sautsimilar to Quick Boiling and Quick Steaming, our other recommended cooking methodsfollows three basic cooking guidelines that are generally associated in food science research with improved nutrient retention. These three guidelines are minimal necessary heat exposure; minimal necessary cooking duration; minimal necessary food suce contact with cooking liquid.

Without sufficient intake of antiinflammatory nutrients, regulation of our inflammatory system can become compromised, and we can experience the problem of chronic inflammation. Especially when combined together with oxidative stress, chronic inflammation is a risk ctor for development of cancer.

OurChinese Chicken Cabbage Saladrecipe is a great example of how to enjoy the delicate flavor of napa cabbage in your vorite salad. It is a milder tasting variety of cabbage that boasts the highest concentration of folate.

As described earlier in this food profile, cabbage is also a unique source of several s of phytonutrients. Its overall antioxidant activity is largely due to its unusual phenol and polyphenol content. With red cabbage, these polyphenols include antioxidant and antiinflammatory compounds called anthocyanins. Cabbage is also unique for it rich supply of glucosinolates. These phytonutrients can be converted by the body into isothiocyanates that have special detoxification and anticancer properties.Introduction to Food Rating System ChartIn order to better help you identify foods that feature a high concentration of nutrients for the calories they contain, we created a Food Rating System. This system allows us to highlight the foods that are especially rich in particular nutrients. The following chart shows the nutrients for which this food is either an excellent, very good, or good source below the chart you will find a le that explains these qualifications. If a nutrient is not listed in the chart, it does not necessarily mean that the food doesnt contain it. It simply means that the nutrient is not provided in a sufficient amount or concentration to meet our rating criteria. To view this foods indepth nutritional profile that includes values for dozens of nutrients not just the ones rated as excellent, very good, or good please use the link below the chart. To read this chart accurately, youll need to glance up in the top left corner where you will find the name of the food and the serving we used to calculate the foods nutrient composition. This serving will tell you how much of the food you need to eat to obtain the amount of nutrients found in the chart. Now, returning to the chart itself, you can look next to the nutrient name in order to find the nutrient amount it offers, the percent Daily Value DV that this amount represents, the nutrient density that we calculated for this food and nutrient, and the rating we eslished in our rating system. For most of our nutrient ratings, we adopted the government standards for food labeling that are found in the U.S. Food and Drug Administrations Reference Values for Nutrition Labeling.Read more information and details of our rating system.

Some WHFoods recipes that feature cabbageAsian Chicken SaladChinese Chicken Cabbage SaladSpicy Cabbage SoupPoached Fish with Napa CabbageSesame Braised Chicken CabbageSweet N Sour Cod with Cabbage and BroccoliVegetarian StirFryNapa Cabbage SaladMinute Healthy Sauted Red CabbageGingered Cabbage

The anthocyanins found in red cabbage are welldocumented antiinflammatory compounds and make red cabbage a standout antiinflammatory food for this reason. However, all s of cabbage contain significant amounts of polyphenols that provide antiinflammatory benefits. Anthocyanins are also compounds that ll into the general category of polyphenols known as flavonoids, and they are definitely not the only important flavonoids provided by cabbage. Included in the list of cabbage flavonoids are the following antiinflammatory compounds artemetin, betanidin, butein, equol, hydroxyflavone, kaempferol, luteolin, malvidin, naringenin, pelargonodin, purpurogalin, quercitol, and tetrahydrochalcone.Glucosinolates and Cancer Prevention from Cabbage

Drewnowski A. New metrics of affordable nutrition which vegeles provide most nutrients for least cost? J Acad Nutr Diet. Sep;.

Cabbage ranked in our WHFoods rating system as an excellent source of vitamin C and a very good source of manganese. But in terms of antioxidants in the newer, phytonutrient category, cabbage is impressive, even among cruciferous vegeles. Polyphenols rank at the top of the list for phytonutrient antioxidants in cabbage. In ct, one group of researchers has described polyphenols as the primary ctor in cabbages overall antioxidant capacity. Even white cabbage a very lightlyed form of green cabbage and the most commonly eaten variety of cabbage in the U.S. provides about milligrams of polyphenols in a halfcup serving. Red cabbage makes its own unique contribution in this area by providing about milligrams of the red pigment polyphenols called anthocyanins in each half cup. These anthocyanins qualify not only as antioxidant nutrients, but as antiinflammatory nutrients as well. The antioxidant richness of cabbage is partly responsible for its cancer prevention benefits. Without sufficient intake of antioxidants, our oxygen meolism can become compromised, and we can experience a meolic problem called oxidative stress. Chronic oxidative stress, in and of itself, can be a risk ctor for development of cancer.

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